primary vs secondary
Parkinson�s disease and schizophrenia are sometimes seen as opposite sides of the same coin � the one can be seen as a long-term decline in the presence of dopamine and the dopaminergic pathways, while the latter seems to be linked with the dopamine receptors being over-stimulated.
Yet, radically different effects are observed, and in different areas of the population. Parkinson�s disease tends to strike in the elderly (approximately 1% of the elderly population suffer from it), seeming to cause a marked decline in levels ofo dopamine, with worsening effect on the motor system, especially the basal ganglia (why doesn't this only effect emotional involuntary movement?).
In contrast, the effects of schizophrenia consist of flattened affect and abnormal mental function. Although the disorder is not usually detected until it has become severe enough to require evaluation or treatment in a clinic or hospital, symptoms can be seen in the under-twenties.
have they considered giving L-DOPA to the elderly?
stastical deviance view � madness is only a case of the frequency and intensity of the symptoms, as naturally occuring patterns
others see the symptoms as being qualitatively different, a pathology � with mental/physical causes
whether illnesses in the sense of a distinguishable abnormality or deviances purely in terms of the degree of difference from the norm, psychopathologies cause considerable anguish + disability
Schizophrenia is a term used to describe a group of serious disorders, affecting up to 1% of the population and accounting for about half the beds in mental health hospitals.
Progress in its study has been slow, for a number of reasons. In the first place, the term �schizophrenia� is used to categorise an extremely wide range of disorders, including disorders of cognition, emotion, behaviour and social integration.
Its etymology leads to confusion with �dissociative identity disorder�; however, schizophrenia is characterised instead by disorders of cognition, emotion, behaviour and social integration.
an �abnormal disintegration of mental functions� (Bleuler, 1911).
Because of the difficulties of classifying individual psychopathologies, according to DSM-IV, schizophrenia is classified as being present in subjects displaying at least two of the following symptoms for at least a week:
1. Disorders of cognition
Schizophrenics can suffer pervasive thought disturbance. They appear to have difficulty suppressing the irrelevant, both internal thoughts and external stimuli.
2. symptom 2
3. symptom 3
demonstrates that the cause cannot be solely genetic, though 50% of the variety is genetic.
There are five dopamine receptors, but it is the D2 variety which chlorpromazine blocked, first formulated in 1952.